The combination of her lack of official authority and the difficulties created by religious civil war have shaped responses to Catherine since her lifetime. Some historians have chided her as a Catholic, others have regarded her as too Catholic, many have considered her irreligious or even Machiavellian in her politics.
The Doge of Venice did not rank as a vassal to the Latin Empire, but his position in control of three-eighths of its territory and of parts of Constantinople itself ensured Venice's influence in the Empire's affairs.
However, much of the former Byzantine territory remained in the hands of rival successor states led by Byzantine Greek aristocrats, such as the Despotate of Epirusthe Empire of Nicaeaand the Empire of Trebizondeach bent on reconquest from the Latins.
The crowning of Baldwin I 16 May and the establishment of the Latin Empire had the curious effect of creating three simultaneously existing entities claiming to be successors of the Roman Empire: None of these polities actually controlled the city of Romewhich remained under the temporal authority of the Pope.
The initial campaigns of the crusaders in Asia Minor resulted in the capture of most of Bithynia bywith the defeat of the forces of Theodore I Laskaris at Poemanenum and Prusa.
Latin successes continued, and in a truce was signed with Theodore, newly proclaimed Emperor of Nicaea. The Latins inflicted a further defeat on Nicaean forces at the Rhyndakos river in Octoberand three years later the Treaty of Nymphaeum recognized their control of most of Bithynia and Mysia.
The peace was maintained untilwhen the resurgent power of Nicaea felt sufficiently strong Latino reformation challenge the Latin Empire, by that time weakened by constant warfare in its European provinces.
At the battle of Poimanenon inthe Latin army was defeated, and by the next year Emperor Robert of Courtenay was forced to cede all his Asian possessions to Nicaea, except for Nicomedia and the territories directly across from Constantinople. Nicaea turned also to the Aegeancapturing the islands awarded to the empire.
Latino reformationfinally, the last Latin possessions fell to Nicaea. In Europe[ edit ] Unlike in Asia, where the Latin Empire faced only an initially weak Nicaea, in Europe it was immediately confronted with a powerful enemy: When Baldwin campaigned against the Byzantine lords of Thracethey called upon Kaloyan for help.
At the Battle of Adrianople on 14 Aprilthe Latin heavy cavalry and knights were crushed by Kaloyan's troops and Cuman allies, and Emperor Baldwin was captured.
He was imprisoned in the Bulgarian capital Tarnovo until his death later in Kaloyan was murdered a couple of years later during a siege of Thessalonicaand the Bulgarian threat conclusively defeated with a victory the following year, which allowed Baldwin's successor, Henry of Flandersto reclaim most of the lost territories in Thrace untilwhen peace was concluded with the marriage of Henry to Maria of Bulgariatsar Kaloyan's daughter.
At the same time, another Greek successor state, the Despotate of Epirusunder Michael I Komnenos Doukasposed a threat to the empire's vassals in Thessalonica and Athens. Henry demanded his submission, which Michael provided, giving off his daughter to Henry's brother Eustace in the summer of This alliance allowed Henry to launch a campaign in MacedoniaThessaly and Central Greece against the rebellious Lombard lords of Thessalonica.
However, Michael's attack on the Kingdom of Thessalonica in forced him to return north to relieve the city and to force Michael back into submission. In however, Michael died, and was succeeded by Theodore Komnenos Doukaswho was determined to capture Thessalonica.
On 11 Junewhile supervising repairs to the walls of Thessalonica, Henry died, and was succeeded by Peter of Courtenaywho himself was captured and executed by Theodore the following year.
A regency was set up in Constantinople, headed by Peter's widow, Yolanda of Flandersuntil her death in Epirote armies then conquered Thrace in —26, appearing before Constantinople itself.
Decline and fall[ edit ] After Robert of Courtenay died ina new regency under John of Brienne was set up. After the disastrous Epirote defeat by the Bulgarians at the Battle of Klokotnitsathe Epirote threat to the Latin Empire was removed, only to be replaced by Nicaea, which started acquiring territories in Greece.
Emperor John III Doukas Vatatzes of Nicaea concluded an alliance with Bulgaria, which in resulted in a joint campaign against the Latin Empire, and an unsuccessful siege of Constantinople the same year.
InBaldwin II attained majority and took over the reins of a much-diminished state. The empire's precarious situation forced him to travel often to Western Europe seeking aid, but largely without success. In order to gain money, he was forced to resort to desperate means, from removing the lead roofs of the Great Palace and selling them, to handing over his only son, Philip, to Venetian merchants as a guarantee for a loan.
Bythe Nicaeans had effectively surrounded Constantinople, with only the city's strong walls holding them at bay, and the Battle of Pelagonia in signaled the beginning of the end of Latin predominance in Greece.
Thus, on 25 Julywith most of the Latin troops away on campaign,[ vague ][ where? The remaining Latin states ruled the territory of present Greecesome of them until the 18th century, and are known as Latinokratia states.
Titular claimants[ edit ] For about a century thereafter, the heirs of Baldwin II continued to use the title of Emperor of Constantinople, and were seen as the overlords of the various remaining Latin states in the Aegean.
They exercised effective authority in Greece only when actually ruling as princes of Achaeaas in —Apr 15, · Home U.S.
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The reception of the Protestant Reformation in the United States Latino and Latin American church is a sweet agony. On the one hand, there is the continuity of missional passion, while on the other hand, there are discontinuities in the theological heritage.
The Latin Empire with its vassals (in yellow) and the Greek successor states of the Byzantine Empire (in red) after the Treaty of Nymphaeum in The ELCA is one of the largest Christian denominations in the United States, with about 4 million members in nearly 10, congregations across the 50 states, Caribbean and U.S.
Virgin Islands. Florida a Microcosm of Latino Reformation It's obvious in cities like Tampa, Florida where almost a quarter of the population is Hispanic. On any given Sunday at The Crossing Church in Tampa you'll see a mix of ages, backgrounds and races.
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